The fiscal year variant contains the number of posting periods in the fiscal year and the number of special periods.
You can define a maximum of 16 posting periods for each fiscal year in the Controlling component (CO). To define the fiscal year variant, go into Customizing for Financial Accounting (FI) under Financial Accounting Global Settings ® Fiscal Year ® Maintain Fiscal Year Variant.
You need to specify the fiscal year variant for each company code.
When you create a controlling area, you also need to specify the fiscal year variant. The fiscal year variants of the company code and controlling area may only differ in the number of special periods used. You need to ensure that the fiscal year variants match, in other words, they may not have a time conflict.
You can assign a company code using a fiscal year variant with 12 posting periods and four special periods to a controlling area that has a fiscal year variant with 12 posting periods and one special period. The time frame, for example, from April 1 to March 31 in the following year, must be identical in each fiscal year variant.
However, it cannot be assigned to a controlling area with 52 posting periods for example.
Fiscal year is the way financial data is stored in the system. You have 12 periods in SAP and also four special periods. These periods are stored in what is called the fiscal year variant.
There are two types of Fiscal Year Variant
? Calendar Year – Jan-Dec, April -March
? Year Dependent Fiscal Year.